Diameter
Wire weight and resistance math
Formula's to determine wire diameter through wire weight or electrical resistance.

Diameter vs. wire weight

The volume of a length of wire equals:

Where:
V : wire volume [m3, in3]
Ø : wire diameter [mm, in]
L : wire length [m, in]

Calculating the wire diameter of a given measured length of wire with a certain mass is done with

Where:
Ø : wire diameter [mm, in]
m : wire mass [kg, lbs]
ρ : wire density [kg/m3, lbs/in3]
L : wire length [m, in]


Diameter vs. electrical resistance

The resistance of a wire is calculated with

Where
R : electrical resistance [Ω]
ρ : electrical resistivity [Ω·m]
L : wire length [m]
Ø : wire diameter [m]

The resistance per length of wire is:

Calculating the wire diameter of a given measured length of wire with a certain resistivity is done with


Physical properties for common materials 

  Density 1) Melting point Thermal conductivity 1) Thermal expansion 2) Elastic modulus 1) Shear modulus 1) Electrical resistivity 1)
Symbol ρ (rho)   λ (lambda) α (alpha) E G ρ (rho)
Unit ·10^3 [kg/m^3] [K] [W/mK] ·10^-6 [K-1] ·10^9 [Pa] ·10^9 [Pa] ·10^-9 [Ω·m]
Aluminum 2.7 933 237 23.1 70 26 27
Aluminum alloy 2.63 - 2.82 749 - 927 121 - 180 22.0 - 26 79 - 79 26 - 30 50
Copper 8.97 1358 398 16.6 110 48 16.7 - 67.5
Copper alloy 7.47 - 8.94 1128 - 1533 110 - 390 16.3 - 20.2 110 - 120 47 140 - 490
Gold 19.3 1337 315 14.2 83 27 24
Iron 7.86 1811 80 11.8 211 82 98
Steel 6.92 - 9.13 1644 - 1805 11-12 10.0 - 17.3 190 - 210 75 - 80 180
Stainless steel 7.64 - 8.44   7.3 - 26 17.3 195 57 - 97 720 - 765
Lead 11.35 601 35 28.9 16 5.6 210
Lead alloy 7.85 - 11.35 455 - 599 20.2 19.5 - 29.0     150
Molybdenum 10.28 2896 140 4.8 329 126 52
Molybdenum alloy 10.21 2610          
Nickel 8.91 1728 90 13.4 210 80 70
Nickel alloy 7.75 - 8.85 1383 - 1727 12.6 - 17.0 0.0 - 14 170 - 200 66 112 - 330
Platinum 21.45 2041 73 8.8 168 61 106
Silver 10.49 1234 427 18.9 83 30 16.1
Titanium 4.51 1941 20 8.6 116 44 430
Titanium alloy 4.43 - 4.70 1822 - 1922   8 - 10 110 - 120 39 - 44  
Tungsten 19.29 3695 178 4.5 411 161 55
Zinc 7.14 693 115 30.2 108 43 59
Zinc alloy 6.64 - 7.20 659 - 798 105 - 115 23.3 - 27.4 > 86 34  
Ceramic 2.30 - 5.50 4143   0 - 7.5 450    
Tungsten carbide   3143 100 3.7 586 - 689 262  
ND/SSCD diamond 3.52 3820 900 - 2320 1.3 1050 - 1200 478 10(13)
PCD diamond     500 - 600   827 - 1103    

Physical properties for common materials. Source: Wikipedia.com, Efunda.com, CRC handbook of Mechanical Engineering, Element6, Sandvik Hyperion

Notes:
1)  T = 293K
2)  T = 273-373 K


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